- The World Outlook For Poultry Slaughtering And Processing (Strategic Planning Series)
- Art of Drawing the Human Body
- Integrated Supply Chain Model for Sustainable Manufacturing: A System Dynamics Approach
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Description Details Customer Reviews The liberalization of markets has lead to record levels of international investments. Icon Group Ltd.? It does so by providing various specialized industry reports, data bases, publications and services to its clients. This report is one of many published by Icon Group Ltd.clublavoute.ca/sikes-alcanar-web-para.php
The World Outlook For Poultry Slaughtering And Processing (Strategic Planning Series)
In addition to industry-specific studies, Icon Group Ltd.? This reports concisely compiles a variety of official and proprietary information in a format that allows the reader to quickly benchmark a country vis-? Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Please share your general feedback. You can start or join in a discussion here. Visit emeraldpublishing. Abstract The findings reveal that integration of the supply chain can bring economic, social and environmental sustainability along with a structured production process.
This chapter covers not only the presentation, and interpretation but also the discussion of the presented research results. In addition,12 percent, were people of age standing in the interval of 50 to 65 of age. And 2 percent was an old people of more than 65 of age. The results revealed that majority were within age range 31 to 50 years,54 percent, and this could be explain by the fact that many people who are in this age group have many things to take care of like paying school fees for their children, getting them food, and clothing and require them to have reasonable income.
Also people of age between years are development oriented and they have to prepare for the future when they will not be able to work. The range of above 50 years are few probably because they no longer have energy to engage in such activity and are depending on past savings or have resilience from their daughters and sons. The participation of women in poultry was relatively high because it was an activity that helps them to manage their household.
Although they are generally the main poultry owners and they take care of birds, women usually do not usually make the decisions on the use of poultry and eggs i. The classic division of roles and responsibilities in most traditional societies implies that women have access to Poultry, but do not have full control over the production tools and the benefits gained from them.
It is observed that a non-negligible part of respondents have reached secondary school at a level of 22 percent, unfortunately 12 percent were illiterate. This is an indicative of low level of socio-economic development in many rural areas, especially for farmers it means that agriculture and related activities still have problem of development.
It has been proved that the level of education attained by a farmer not only increases his farm efficiency and productivity but also enhances his ability to understand and evaluate new production technologies Obasi, This logically indicate that they were responsible for the activities concerned. It is observed that the higher percentage of married individuals indicated that seriousness and responsibility can lead to their socio-economic development.
It has been reported a positive but insignificant value for the effect of marital status on efficiency on of small-scale poultry egg production in Nigeria. This shows that as far as socioeconomic development is concerned, activities that do not require big land are welcome and this underlines the need to develop poultry as a landless activity with high level of productivity. It was found out only 24 percent had more than 1 ha. This can mean that this activity has been practiced by farmers for many years ago.
Art of Drawing the Human Body
This is because their wealth of experience is much to rely upon for knowledge and act upon for poultry practices than joining poultry association for possible assistance. This could be one of the reasons for slow level of socio- economic development in rural areas, where big-sized families are found. And its production was still low. This was due to the reason that local breeds do not require much care, and they were thought to be easy to herd although they did not have high productivity. Exotic layers was found to be the type of chicken that people are wishing to keep as they produce a considerable number of eggs, and according to 48 percent of respondents they could help them to increase the level of income and hence help them to achieve social-economic development.
Integrated Supply Chain Model for Sustainable Manufacturing: A System Dynamics Approach
Considering the rest of the proportion of respondent 2 percent ,local chicken breeds were their preference because they do not require high maintenance. So keeping them might allow them to get eggs and new chicks, hence achieve some additional income. And this showed how veterinary services are still insufficient with respect to poultry sector.
According the findings in table 4. In addition there is Rwabisemanyi farm which use chicken in integrated system with fish where chicken are kept intensively to fertilize fish ponds. In the very few cases in which the intensive management system was practiced, it is the small- scale option that is adopted. The choice of system is largely determined by the availability of resources and inputs, i. Thus, most Poultry farmers adopt the free-range, backyard and semi-intensive husbandry systems, in that order.
Typically four poultry management systems have been distinguished Bessei, ; Sonaiya et al. From this the low level of productivity that is prevailing in poultry farming in rural areas could be due to the lack of skills, inadequate capital, insufficient veterinary services and high level of wastage related to diseases, predators and inappropriate farming practices that are used by poultry farmers.
However it has been revealed that poultry production can be relied upon as a major source of income for the family Oladeji, They also declared that they were expecting to continue poultry farming and look forward to make it a more profitable business activity. Also 11 percent affirmed to get more than one achievement from poultry although none were able to make savings from poultry. This makes feed expensive and not everyone is in a position to provide adequate feed to his flock. Thus as long as long as adequate supplies of grain do not exist within a country, intensive forms of poultry production cannot be practiced.
It is also to be noticed that poultry in Rwanda is almost made of chicken whereas other species exist and can be imported to develop the sector, and help farmers achieve development.
Most people in the rural areas are poor and therefore they do not provide a potential market for poultry products. Also many centers lack manpower and facilities. Therefore farmers do not get enough advice from extension staff. Most rural people do not have collateral securities to present to financial institutions to get loans to buy inputs, insurance companies are also found to be reluctant to cover agriculture risks.
Later on, the researcher suggests areas for further research, areas he could not tackle due to the limitation of this study.
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During the survey the socioeconomic status of poultry farmers has been investigated. According to survey results people with many responsibility were found to be the one that are engaged in poultry farming in order to increase the level of income. Those people were found to be in the age group of Looking at sex, the majority of the respondents were male, 58 percent. This meant that due to the gender imbalances in the country, female were less participative in rural economic activities in general; in this regard poultry farming which was found to be a promising opportunity can be a way to help women to participate in rural economic development.
Education level of respondents justify that education standard of Rwanda particularly in rural areas is still very low, and this was found to be among the important limiting factors of socioeconomic development in Rwandan rural areas. In addition, the remaining research questions have been tested and have been verified by collected data. The structure of poultry farming in the rural areas was found to be at the subsistence level of production.
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Traditional backyard poultry rearing was found to be a common feature in rural poor households since many years in Gisagara district. In addition the constraints experienced by poultry farmers were also investigated and determined. However it was found out by the researcher that Poultry farming has shown positive impacts on livelihood improvement in Kigembe and Save Sectors through: o Gender promotion support the most vulnerable social groups often particularly women and Households headed by women o Income generation employment creation on the farm especially for individuals o Household nutrition improvement kitchen garden, eggs and meat, etc o Environmental protection soil fertility, less environmental pollution o Food security increased production through integrated fish farming; protein intake o Rural community development infrastructures o Family health and education improvement health insurance, school fees 5.
It was found that livestock production especially poultry production, although it is now found underexploited by rural farmers has paramount contribution to the income of rural households in Rwanda.
If poultry farmers get appropriate skills for livestock management especially poultry, have access to infrastructures, feed resources, suitable breeding stock, institutional support, sufficient veterinary services, it is evident that the contribution of poultry will be at its maximum and will allow socio-economic development; and hence improve the life standards of rural people and the economy of the country in general.
Cooperatives have proved to be the most effective way of bringing socio-economic development in rural areas. They have the ability to organize and mobilize people to help themselves within the rural area by facilitating them to get sure market for their poultry products. This was found to be another lacking factor that would help poultry farmers attain socio-economic development through poultry farming. The support should also be adequate and available in all rural areas of the country.
Hence promote sustainability of this sector. Types of poultry species that can improve productivity in Rwandan rural areas ii.